To strengthen those roots and forge a strong identity based on ambitious bilingual aims, we have enlisted the support of the Jeannine Manuel school to share pedagogical best practices, supported by the professional development of our teachers.
École Jeannine Manuel, whose alumni attend the most prestigious universities around the world, has pioneered bilingual instruction for the past 65 years, allowing its students to reach a quasi-native mastery of French and of English, both orally and in writing. This command of both languages affords them the opportunity to choose, in 11th grade, between the two tracks our school plans to offer: the international option of the French baccalaureate (OIB – American section) and the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IBDP).
This cooperation will begin gradually, starting in January 2020, through the implementation of practices proven to be effective in Paris, Lille and London.
The IB Primary Years Programme (PYP) for children aged 3 – 12 nurtures and develops young students as caring, active participants in a lifelong journey of learning.
Through its inquiry-led, transdisciplinary framework, the PYP challenges students to think for themselves and take responsibility for their learning as they explore local and global issues and opportunities in real-life contexts.
Kindergarten – Bilingual classes
As part of the school project, the objectives of our bilingual education curriculum are to strengthen the linguistic and cognitive development of children and enable learners to acquire comparable skills in both languages while respecting the program of the French National Education. The programme will be shared in both languages and hence specific learning outcomes will be taught in one language or the other.
The bilingual education programme applies in Kindergarten (Petite Section / Pre-Kg, Moyenne Section / KG1 and Grande Section / KG2) and finalise the sharing of lessons in both languages.
The programme will be taught in both languages provided by two teachers; one for each language and both native speakers.
The Kindergarten section at ICE is accredited by the French Ministry of Education. It is compliant with the French Ministry of Education and follows the Scope and Sequence of the French Programme.
For further information kindly check the following link: http://www.education.gouv.fr/pid35/ecole-maternelle.html
During this cycle of fundamental learning, students are encouraged to become more autonomous. The primary objectives of CP / Grade 1 & CE1 / Grade 2 are the learning of reading, writing and speaking in French and english, and the knowledge & understanding of numbers, including how to write numbers and how to calculate small quantities. At the end of CE1 / Grade 2, students should have acquired a basic mastery of these skills as well as addition and subtraction techniques.
The objectives of CE2 (Grade 3), CM1 (Grade 4) & CM2 (Grade 5) are the command of the two languages and the main elements of mathematics. In addition, literature, geography, history, experimental sciences and technology are taught in those grades, expanding the students’ knowledge base and extending their aptitude. The use of IT tools in various school activities increases autonomy, reflection, observation, and creative imagination, considered as conditions for success at school. These skills allow each student to gain self-confidence and increase learning proficiency – tools that will serve them well at the intermediate and secondary school levels, and later on in all domains.
The Primary School at ICE is accredited by the French Ministry of Education. It is compliant with the French Ministry of Education and follows the Scope and Sequence of the French Programme.
For further information kindly check the following link: http://www.education.gouv.fr/pid34/ecole-elementaire.html
Our 6th grade is accredited by the French Ministry of Education this year and is following by 7th grade
KG2 French Class Teacher
Corps: Professeur des Ecole: 01/09/1998
Ancienneté de corps : 20 ans au 01/09/2018
Grade: Professeur des Ecoles de classe normale : 01/09/1998
Date de titularisation : 01/09/1999
Echelon : 10 : 01/06/2018
Position : Détachement pour enseignement à l’étranger.
Modalité de service : travail à temps plein : 01/09/1998
-Professeur des Ecoles titulaire depuis le 1er septembre 1999.
Milieu ZEP et REP
-Professeure des Ecoles Maître Formateur depuis le 1er septembre 2012, titulaire du CAFIPEMF.
Milieu REP puis école d’application
Formations suivies :
- S’approprier le langage oral et entrer dans l’écrit par le biais des albums en maternelle ; 3 semaines en 2006
- Le nombre et l’espace en situation de recherche : du faire à la pensée ; 3 semaines en 2009
- Réussir le CAFIPEMF ; 3 semaines en 2011
- Apport et découvertes en neurosciences affectives sur les développements de l’enfant ; Conférence en 2017
- Lien entre énumération, oralité et littératie ; 3 jours en 2017-2018
- Développer les compétences des formateurs : gestes et écrits professionnels ; 3 jours en 2018.
KG2 English Teacher
I have completed a Masters of Science in Education, along with a 100 hour TESOL/ TESL/ TEFL certification. I also hold certification with the Ontario College of Teachers and the New York State Education Department. I am confident that my education, my passion for working with young learners, and my commitment to the success of students with diverse social, cultural, and academic backgrounds will be assets to the students within your school.
I am also quite proficient at using student Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) assessment data to drive instruction. This has helped me to continually challenge my students to reach their optimal academic success. Throughout all my experiences, I have aimed at fostering strong connections with my students and enjoyed guiding and observing their academic growth. I also believe in the importance of creating/maintaining positive and transparent connections with the parents, so that the student feels supported at school and home. My experiences to date have helped strengthen my planning/organizational skills within the dynamics of having my own classroom. I have always implemented a reward system within my class praising good behavior. Focusing on and encouraging positive behavior while detracting attention from any negative behavior has truly helped with my classroom management skills.
Lastly, over the past few years, I have also had the opportunity to teach at the Hankuk Academy of Foreign Studies for their annual Winter English Camp in South Korea. For the duration of the camp, I taught an English Debate Class using the Asian Parliamentary Debate format. Through my Debate class, I was able to increase my students’ English speaking, reading and writing skills in harmony. During this time, I also ensured that I built strong relationships and collaborated with the other teachers and staff to ensure that we were always able to serve our students to the best of our abilities.
BEAUGET THOMAS, Virginie
Year 2 French Class Teacher
-Professeur des Ecoles titulaire depuis le 1er septembre 2003.
Milieu ZEP et REP dans la région de Paris.
- 9 ans d'enseignement dans les 3 cycles de l'école primaire.
-Professeure des Ecoles Maître Formateur depuis le 1er septembre 2012, titulaire du CAFIPEMF.
- 3 ans d'enseignement au LFI de Dubaï en cycle 2.
- 3 ans d'enseignement en école d’application en France.
Une école d'application est, en France, un établissement d'enseignement chargé d’accueillir et de former les professeurs des écoles stagiaires.
- Enseignante de CE1 et coordinatrice du cycle 2 à ICE en 2018/2019
- 2019/2020 : 17ème année d'enseignement, enseignante de CP à ICE, cycle 2.
Year 2 English Class Teacher
My name is Miss Kelly-Ann and I am the English CP teacher for the 2020-2021 academic year. Throughout the year, I will be instructing students in the subjects of English, Moral Education, Science, Art, Drama, and Sports. In addition to these core subjects, I also support students in developing their understanding of community, responsibility, respect, and leadership. I equally encourage high scholastic standards and a strong moral obligation to themselves as well as their peers. In our classroom, we will celebrate success and failure, knowing that our challenges are what help us to grow. My educational background includes a Master of teaching in Elementary Education from the University of Virginia in the United States of America. I have taught kindergarten for one year and first grade for six years. I am proud to carry with me a classroom tradition rooted in collaboration, differentiation, and growth-mindset. Our experiences will be hands-on, student-centered, and fun to support life-long learning.
Year 3-4 French Class Teacher
Teacher of CE1 and CE2 at ICE.
32 years old. Titulaire du CRPE + Master 2 Éducation
2011 - 2015: École publique bilingue - Toulouse, France
2015- 2017: Lycée international de Los Angeles, USA
2017- 2020: Ecole Internationale Franco-Anglaise / École Jeannine Manuel de Londres.
Year 3-4 English Class Teacher
Hello my name is Jessica Strawbridge and I will be the English teacher in CE1 and CE2. I am looking forward to teaching your children this year and I am hopeful that they will make lots of progress in my class.
I am originally from Northern Ireland. My undergraduate degree is in Business Management but after a few years of working as a Teaching Assistant I decided to become a teacher. I qualified my teacher training in Nottingham, England and worked there for a couple of years. I also worked in Kuwait before moving to Dubai 2 years ago. This will be my third academic year working and living in Dubai.
You can always email me when you need anything or have any queries. I look forward to meeting you face to face soon.
Head of Arabic and Islamic/Arabic Teacher
Professeur des écoles depuis 6 ans, détachée de l'Education nationale
En 2011, j'ai obtenu une licence de Lettres modernes à l'Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis. A la suite de mes études, j'ai suivi un cursus de 2 ans qui m'a permis d'obtenir un master 2 EEF (Enseignement, Education et Formation).
En 2013, j'ai réussi le concours de Professeur des écoles en France. Grâce à cela, j'ai pu enseigner dans diverses écoles de l'académie de Nice.
A présent, j'entame ma deuxième année d'enseignement à ICE Dubaï et j'ai obtenu la certification IB catégorie 1.
COUZIN AGOSTINI, Candice
Elle est diplômée en Psychomotricité, Psychopathologie Clinique, Psychothérapie et Psychologie Médicale
Elle a travaillé 15 ans en France dans un centre d’aide thérapeutique pour enfants (difficultés scolaires, troubles de l’attention et du comportement, autisme…).
Elle est aussi diplômée en Français Langue Etrangère.
Elle a vécu en France, au Chili, et est arrivée à Dubaï en 2019.
ARABIC Language Coordinator, Arabic teacher ALM
- Leading and developing the Arabic and Islamic teams
in other schools in the group.
- I’ve gained total of 26 years of experience in leadership and teaching in the UAE.
- I’ve generated several effective strategies in teaching students; I provide the students and staff with full support.
As a leader in a department it is essential to plan, organize, lead and control. I’m always attentive with every detail going on in the department to make sure everything is on the right track.
- My aim is to encourage a strong team spirit.
- We the leadership team of International Concept Education are very enthusiastic to the new academic year and we are working together in order to reach the highest levels of creativity and success.
Religion Teacher ALM
My name is Bassem Mikdash. I’m an Arabic and Islamic Teacher. I studied in Beirut Islamic University where I obtained my degree.
I did further studies and got my Master and PHD degree’s in Islamic studies in Makassed University in 2016.
I taught Islamic and Arabic for the past 15 years in different schools from Grade 1 to Grade 12 while using different work methodologies in both Dubai and Beirut.
I am glad to have your children this year in my class.
Religion Teacher ALE
Enseignante d’Etude Islamique ALE (Arabe Langue Etrangère).
Nadia occupe ce poste depuis quinze ans, au sein de l’AFLEC ainsi que l’école ICE, et ceci depuis sa création.
Elle possède une licence en littérature française et a obtenu plusieurs certificats en Éducation Islamique.
L’objectif qu’elle s’est fixée à atteindre est d’élargir les connaissances des élèves et promouvoir la morale et les valeurs de l’Islam qui prônent la tolérance et la coexistence pacifique.
Arabic teacher ALE
We are looking forward to another wonderful school year. Let me take this opportunity to introduce myself as your child’s (ALE) Arabic teacher this year from MS to 6EME.
My name is Israa Amayri and this is my third year in ICE school. I have been involved in education for twelve years teaching Arabic and English. I am from Syria and have a Diploma in Teaching English Language Damascus University.
My passion in education is using craft and art and creative games so the students can enjoy their learning time.
Chinese Language Teacher
Joining a professional teamwork and highly reputed in teaching Arabic Language to achieve and overcome the work challenges and to get further responsibilities and effective and practical tasks in improving my practical and administrative skills.
As a certified English Language Teacher, I have learnt the importance of communication, which cemented my eagerness to apply my skills to a linguistic and social cause. As a result, I pursued joining educational institutes that focused on the acquisition of a second language. I recognize what an important role an educator has, how it can change lives, and the profound reward received from it. During my teaching career, I taught students from a dozen different backgrounds in Canada, UAE and remotely with China. I am also currently completing my post-graduate studies in International Education. It is a pleasure to be part of the team and I look forward to applying the skills and expertise I have to the bright minds of ICE!
Chinese language teacher
Ying SUN, de nationalité chinoise, a fait ses études universitaires en France a l'Ecole Supérieure d'Arts de Grenoble. Elle a été professeur de Chinois en France et a Abu Dhabi avant de rejoindre Dubai en 2018.
Year 7-8 Teacher
"Professeur certifié d'histoire-géographie depuis 2006, j'ai enseigné durant huit années en collèges-lycées dans le Sud-Est de la France (Avignon, Marseille, Villefranche-sur-Saône, Toulon), avant d'être détaché à la rentrée 2014 au Lycée Français International de l'AFLEC de Dubaï, où j'exerce depuis quatre ans la fonction de coordonnateur du département d'histoire-géographie. Depuis la rentrée 2019, j'enseigne également à ICE en 6ème.
Riche d'une ouverture culturelle acquise au cours de voyages à travers plus de 60 pays et d'une formation en anglais (certification complémentaire DNL en anglais, TOEFL), j'ai concouru à l'homologation des sections internationales américaines (2016, 2017) au LFI et initié la participation à des conférences MUN (Qatar 2017, Singapore 2017, New York 2019, Yale University 2020).
Year 7-8 Teacher
Professeur français originaire de la ville de Toulouse. Diplômé de l’Université de Toulouse II, titulaire de l’Education Nationale française. Vingt-deux ans d’expérience en tant que professeur (collège, lycée, enseignement supérieur, cours pour adultes). Spécialisé dans l’enseignement de la langue française, de la littérature et du théâtre.
A Dubai depuis 2017, exerce à l’Aflec, où il est responsable des classes culturelles théâtre en collège et de l’option théâtre en lycée.
Auteur publié (poésie, roman, théâtre, comédie musicale), il a également un long passé de directeur de compagnie théâtrale de jeunes.
Enseigne à Ice depuis septembre 2019.
Nayla Saadé, licenciée en pédagogie, option mathématiques, a enseigné les mathématiques au Collège de la Sagesse Brasilia, au Liban.
Pendant 10 ans, elle a enseigné les classes de CM1, CM2 et 6ème. Durant ces années, elle a suivi plusieurs formations: résolution de problèmes au primaire, problèmes ouverts au cycle primaire, rédaction en géométrie au collège, travail sur les logiciels Geogebra, Excel, I learn math toolbox, Scratch.
Ce collège lui confie alors les classes de 5ème et de 4ème. Avec beaucoup d’enthousiasme, elle a accompagné ses élèves leur communiquant sa passion pour la matière et des méthodes de raisonnement efficaces pour structurer la pensée logique.
Mme Saadé a également animé des heures de TIC (technologie de l’information et de la communication) où les séances étaient vivantes et actives.
Elle est ouverte à tout changement et son soucis premier est le bien des élèves et leur progression.
Professeur d'EPS au lycée Français International de l'Aflec depuis 9 ans , dont 4 ans en tant que coordinateur d'EPS, plus de 15 ans dans le domaine de l'éducation physique et sportive comme j'ai passé par le cursus de "sport étude" dès la classe de 2nde grace à ma sélection nationale tunisienne de l'équipe de Handball au niveau des jeunes.
Une formation qui a debuté par un "bac sport" qui m'a permis de suivre mes études supérieures pour avoir la licence fondamentale d'ensignement en éducation physique et sportive, et le diplome national d'entraineur de Handball.
Certified Robotics Trainer from Carnegie Mellon University - Pittsburgh USA
World's best robotics coach 2019 - Houston
World's Robotics Champion 2015 - St.Louis Missouri
UAE Robotics Champion 2019, 2018 and 2017
Arab Robotics Champion 2013 - 2014
10+ teaching years experience
Trained more than 45 nationalities in 3 different languages: English, French and Arabic.
EL DACCACHE OBEID, Julie
Bibliothécaire à ICE depuis 2017.
Responsable des tâches de gestion des collections documentaires et d’aides aux élèves à la bibliothèque, et aussi des fonctions d’administration générale.
Bonnie Woolley, chef de chœur et enseignante, dirige des chorales amateurs et professionnelles depuis l’âge de 17 ans. Diplômée en musique et en didactique des langues – anglais et français langues étrangères – (B.A., M.A., D.E.A.) elle a enseigné la musique, le FLE et l’ALE dans des établissements très variés, depuis l’école élémentaire jusqu’à l’université. Elle est formatrice professionnelle, et intervient auprès d’enseignants et d’entreprises. Elle est chargée de la formation des enseignants en chant chorale par l’Éducation nationale (France, EAU) et a coordonné de nombreux festivals de musique et projets inter-degrés.
My name is Meriem and I am the French/Mathematiques/Sciences teacher for CPC.
I have been a French teacher since 2018 and I love it. Seeing my students progressing in French is extremely rewarding.
I love languages but I am more passionate about the French language in which I read a lot.
I used to teach different ages, but CP is the most important one because it's where kids start to learn how to write and read so I would like to inspire them with my passion for reading and entice them to be passionate readers themselves.
My name is Mrs. Lara and I am the English teacher for CPC for the academic year 2020-2021. Leveraging my 7+ years of experience with students of almost all ages and backgrounds, I anticipate that I will be able to contribute highly to helping students meet their curriculum goals, and provide them with a wider view of the language. My degree in English Literature& Language and my IB certification, have provided me with the well-rounded knowledge needed to be able to teach and educate the youth proper English and the dynamics it comes with. I intend on manifesting my passion to students, in different ways, in order to achieve open-minded, knowledgeable inquirers.
Carina Cocci MSB and CE 2B English teacher.
Hi my name is Carina Cocci and I am from South Africa. I am the English teacher for MSB and CE 2B I have an undergraduate Degree in Politics, History and English Language and Linguistics. I also hold a PGCE. I have worked in Thailand as a TEFL teacher working with children ranging from the ages’ of 3 to 18 year old. I also have 5 years’ experience as a homeroom teacher for Years 2 and 3 at a Primary school in South Africa teaching English, Mathematics and Social Studies. I have a passion for education and thrive on interacting and working with children. I will endeavour to make positive relationships built on trust, understanding and care with the students.
PYP – International Baccalaureate (IB)
The Primary Years Programme
The International Baccalaureate aims to develop inquiring, knowledgeable and caring young people who help to create a better and more peaceful world through intercultural understanding and respect.
At ICE, our mission is to meet the UAE National Agenda targets by providing students with challenging educational programmes that develop a desire for life-long learning as well as excellence in character, knowledge, and skills. We aim to develop active, compassionate young men and women who are globally-minded and caring individuals, helping to innovate and light the way for their communities to create a better world. Graduates of International Concept for Education will have developed self-discipline, technological skills, self-confidence, and respect for all nations and their diversities.
Given the synergy between the school’s mission and that of the IB, it seems only natural that the PYP should be the chosen vehicle with which we deliver our curriculum.
The Primary Years Programme (PYP) is a transdisciplinary programme of international education designed to foster development of the whole child. The PYP is one of three International Baccalaureate (IB) programmes.
- is for students between the ages of 3 and 12
- is designed to foster development of the whole child, not just in the classroom
- encompasses social, physical, emotional, spiritual and cultural needs, as well as academic welfare
- combines the best research and practice in education to create a relevant and engaging educational framework for all students
- promotes the construction of knowledge and the importance of skills
- promotes inquiry
- strikes a balance between the traditional disciplines and the transdisciplinary Programme of Inquiry
- promotes international-mindedness
- encourages students to become active, compassionate and lifelong learners who understand differences
- requires valid and varied assessment.
The PYP is a curriculum framework, which consists of the five essential elements: concepts, knowledge, skills, attitudes and action. The knowledge component is developed through the transdisciplinary Programme of Inquiry and the individual disciplines – Mathematics, Languages, Music, Robotics, Emblematic Activities, Chess etc.
The Programme of Inquiry consists of six individual units of inquiry at each year level from MS through to Grade 5 – organised under six themes:
- How the world works
- Where we are in time and place
- How we share the planet
- How we express ourselves
- How we organise ourselves
- Who we are
This forms part of a cohesive and comprehensive programme across the Primary School.
Teachers are aware of what the other year levels and other sections are studying, and specialist teachers work closely with classroom teachers to develop units of inquiry as well as teaching their own individual disciplines. The methodology is based on the constructivist approach and inquiry based learning.
Teachers ascertain what the students already know about the topic under investigation and then guide the inquiry by building on that prior knowledge. This enables the classroom teacher to tailor the learning programme to suit individual needs
The Learner Profile
Inquirers – develop their natural curiosity. They acquire the skills necessary to conduct inquiry and research and show independence in learning. They actively enjoy learning and this love of learning will be sustained throughout their lives.
Knowledgeable – students explore concepts, ideas and issues that have local and global significance. In so doing, they acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding across a broad and balanced range of disciplines.
Thinkers – exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognise and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions.
Communicators – understand and express ideas and information, confidently and creatively, in more than one language and in a variety of modes of communication. They work effectively and willingly in collaboration with others.
Principled – students act with integrity and honesty, with a strong sense of fairness, justice and respect for the dignity of the individual, groups and communities. They take responsibility for their own actions and the consequences that accompany them.
Open-minded – students understand and appreciate their own cultures and personal histories, and are open to the perspectives, values and traditions of other individuals and communities. They are accustomed to seeking and evaluating a range of points of view, and are willing to grow from the experience.
Caring – students show empathy, compassion and respect towards the needs and feelings of others. They have a personal commitment to service, and act to make a positive difference to the lives of others and to the environment.
Risk-takers – approach unfamiliar situations and uncertainty with courage and forethought, and have the independence of spirit to explore new roles, ideas and strategies. They are brave and articulate in defending their beliefs.
Balanced – students understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance to achieve personal well-being for themselves and others.
Reflective – students give thoughtful consideration to their own learning and experience. They are able to assess and understand their strengths and limitations in order to support their learning and personal development.
Each month is dedicated to a particular Learner Profile, students are rewarded at Assemblies with certificates presented to pupils who exemplify that month’s Learner Profile, or indeed any of the others.
In order to be an internationally minded person it is important that there is a focus on the development of personal attitudes towards people, the environment, learning and the well-being of individuals and groups. At ICE we nurture our students and encourage them to demonstrate:
- Appreciation – of the wonder and beauty of the world and its people
- Commitment – to their own learning, persevering and showing self-discipline and responsibility
- Confidence – in their ability as learners, having the courage to take risks, applying what they have learned and making appropriate decisions and choices
- Cooperation – by collaborating, and leading or following as the situation demands
- Creativity – and imagination in their thinking, and in their approach to problems and dilemmas
- Curiosity – about the nature of learning, about the world, its people and cultures
- Empathy – by imagining themselves in another’s situation in order to understand his or her reasoning and emotions, so as to be open-minded and reflective about the perspectives of others
- Enthusiasm – and enjoyment in the learning process and the willingness to put in the effort needed to succeed
- Independence – by thinking and acting independently, making their own judgments based on reasoned argument, and being able to defend their judgments
- Integrity – by being honest and demonstrating a considered sense of fairness
- Respect – for themselves, others and the world around them
- Tolerance – and sensitivity for the differences and diversity in the world and empathy towards the needs of others.
For more information about the PYP: https://www.ibo.org/programmes/primary-years-programme/
I am officially introducing myself to you.
After a Post graduate degree following my Master’s degree in British 19th century civilization and literature from the Sorbonne, I embraced teaching. Passionate about pedagogy and having a holistic vision of children’s development, I have been dedicating my career to it, for more than 20 years now, 19 years of which have been spent abroad. As a Teacher, pedagogical advisor, advisor to the Lebanese Ministry of National Education, Head of Primary or as a Principal, I have always had it at heart and still have, to put my skills, energy and empathy at the service of students and their parents while making sure to put in synergy the assets of my collaborators, bearing in our mind the same goal: a fulfilled, binding and caring community.
As a mother of three children, bilingual French-English and, for the elders, quadrilingual French-English-Spanish-Arabic, I deeply believe in multilingualism, a gateway to multiculturalism and the pathway to building a tolerant society which is respectful of others and of diversity. Therefore, among other things, joining ICE, Dubai Bilingual French International School is for me an honor and a concretization of everything i believe in.
ICE 2020 is a unique and extraordinary project, a project that brings together “the best of both worlds” of French and International educations with the support of Ecole Jeannine Manuel, renowned for its bilingual teaching, with the implementation of the Singapore Mathematics Method, the investigative approach to Sciences in the Main à la Pâte spirit, early literacy first in French and then in English, a student-centered and PYP-oriented pedagogy in primary, the discovery and understanding of the language, history and rich culture of our host country
To join ICE is also to join a dynamic team driven by the concern of the wellbeing of your children, whether it is the pedagogical team, the administrative team, or the maintenance team.
Last but not least, joining ICE is also joining a community of invested and committed parents with whom i have and will have pleasure exchanging, debating and working together with one common goal: our students, your children.
Bien cordialement, Sincere regards, مع أطيب تحياتي
Juliette KUDLIKOWSKI (PRINCIPAL)